Coffee History – A Rich Tradition For More Than 1,000 Years of Coffee Produced and Enjoyed Worldwide

The history of coffee has a rich and fascinating tradition, resulting in gourmet coffee available to you in your kitchen or at your favorite coffee house.

Coffee dates back to the 9th century. Today, a good cup of coffee ties our world together in ways that are truly amazing through the years.

The Origin of Coffee

No one knows how coffee was discovered. One popular legend says coffee was discovered by an Arabian shepherd named Kaldi who found his goats prancing around a shrub bearing bright red fruit. He tasted the fruit and experienced the same energy.

Kaldi shared his discovery with the local monks, and they used the fruit to stay awake during long hours of prayer. The “mysterious red fruit” spread to monasteries all over the world, starting the relationship between the church and coffee that has lasted for centuries.

Coffee is mentioned in writings as early as the 10th century, and historians since then have followed coffee’s history and use throughout the world.

In 1471, not long before Columbus left to discover America, the first coffee house opened in Constantinople. The merchant trade of Venice brought coffee to Italy, where the first European coffee shop opened in 1645. Coffee houses spread throughout Europe and England and later to America. By 1675, there were over 3,000 coffee houses in England, demonstrating coffee’s tremendous appeal so many years ago.

As coffee production started around the world in different tropical regions, the growing conditions produced new and distinctive flavors. Various cultures invented new ways of enjoying coffee, and starting new traditions.

Coffee Making Through the Years

How we roast, grind and brew coffee has changed tremendously over the years. At first, coffee was boiled after being crushed by a mortar and pestle, as it still done with Turkish coffee.

Drip brewing started around 1800 in France, about the same time as percolators were invented also. Vacuum coffee makers were invented in 1840 to brew coffee that was clear and without sediment. By the end of the 19th century, espresso machines were developed for brewing coffee through the pressure method. Paper filters were invented by Melitta Benz in 1908. She and her husband patented them and started the Melitta family coffee business, which their grandchildren continue to this day.

Drip coffee makers for home use in the United States became popular after the Mr. Coffee coffee maker was introduced in 1972. Prior to that time, most coffee at home was made with a percolator, either electric or on the stove top.

The rise of the corner gourmet coffee house in America is an even more recent event. Founded in 1971, Starbucks popularized dark, gourmet coffee and expanded on a massive scale in the 1990’s. Now there are 16,000 stores worldwide, including 11,000 in the United States and 1,000 in Canada. This rise in gourmet coffee houses has brought a new coffee lifestyle to American society, greatly increasing expectations for coffee quality.

Growing Coffee Around the World

From coffee’s start in the Arabian peninsula, coffee has become one of the largest commercial crops grown around the world.  Coffees are grown in tropical and subtropical areas, including some of the most impoverished areas of the world. The traditional coffee production areas in are in South America (with Brazil and Columbia as the two largest coffee producers in the world), Africa (primarily East Africa) and Indonesia. Other areas grow coffees that have become prized, including Jamaica, Hawaii, Australia, India, and Costa Rica, winning the hearts of coffee aficionados worldwide.

Gourmet Coffee Today

In general, the coffee beans from from Central and South America are known for their mild yet potent flavor. East African and Arabian coffee beans are known for their intense flavor and bright acidity.  Indonesian coffee beans produce smooth, rich and low acid flavors.

Coffee has brought amazing changes to our society and our world in the past 1,100 years. Coffee continues to span the globe, connecting us with people far away. The coffee in your cup came from beans grown in an exotic location far away and transported around the world to you.

What will be next for coffee? Who knows, so enjoy your cup of gourmet coffee and the rich tradition that goes with it!

How To Do A High School Science Fair Project In One Day

When you are in high school your schedule is jam packed with activities and responsibilities. Not only are you taking more difficult classes, but you are expected to complete a lot more assignments. If you have been assigned a science fair project and you are down to your last day to work on it and have yet to start then these tips are for you. They will help you to complete a science fair project in just one day.

Tip #1 Select a Topic You All Ready Know About

The best option that you have is to select a topic for your science fair project that you all ready know something about, and preferably a topic that you have all ready done research on. Your science textbook is a good source for topics to work with, as is the Internet. Since you will need to complete a literature review, more commonly known as background research, then go online or to your library and select five resources on your topic. Read the introduction and summary to mine out the most important pieces of information. The summaries from your research will make up the first part of your project report after the introduction.

Tip #2 Use a Sample Science Fair Project

A good way to cut corners on project development and design is to use a sample science fair project. You cannot just copy a sample project point by point. Instead you will take the basic principles from the sample and expand on them. For example, the project may test the effect that heat has on a certain chemical reaction. You can alter this project by focusing on how cold impacts the same chemical reaction.

Tip #3 Look for a Behavior Project Opportunity

Human behavior is a great topic for a quick science fair project. For example, you can study how smiling at people in a mall impacts their facial expressions. To complete the experiment all you have to do is walk through a mall for an hour smiling at people and counting how many people smile back.

Tip #4 Expand on Class Demonstrations

Another option that you have for a quick science fair project is to simply expand on a classroom experiment or demonstration. The classroom demonstration can act as the primer for your project. For example a physics demonstration may show you how to calculate the force of a bowling ball impacting a wall. Your project can use the formula and basic experiment set up to determine how force can be increased by manipulating a specific characteristic of the experiment, such as the speed of the ball or the distance that the ball travels before hitting the wall.

How To Choose Restaurant Furniture

Establishing the perfect ambiance for your restaurant is a dream that many restaurateurs yearn for. You want to create a welcoming and magnificently decorated atmosphere similar to that found in a home where your clients can relax and unwind. However, the investor must be very careful while selecting restaurant furniture. Do not be satisfied with merely the appearance of the dcor, but also consider factors like durability. Investing in long-lasting and practical restaurant furniture and accessories that do not go beyond your budget is imperative. Before purchasing these pieces, it is important to go through inventory on hand of different pieces of furnishings so that you can select those that blend well with your decor and those that create a perfect atmosphere for dining.

There are numerous seating options designed to suit different restaurant types. Restaurants with a bar theme will go well with stools for seating, while more formal dining establishment will go with high-backed chairs. There are many different choices between the two as well, depending on the type of restaurant you have, bar versus family versus formal, and everything in between. The seating plan can be done in different styles such as modern design or traditional design. Decide on one theme and select the appropriate seating options that will enhance relaxation and not go beyond your budget.

Put some thought into the tables that you choose. Table bases and tops should offer a spacious surface, be of the correct height, while being aware of leg space and seating arrangement. Table maintenance will be imperative to prevent wear and tear. Tables come in many different sizes, shapes, materials, and finishes; so choose wisely in accordance with your budget and dcor requirements.

The main thing to consider when designing an appealing restaurant is to select eye-catching but durable furniture. There are different kinds of furnishing you can choose from, and with different varieties you can easily come up with a superb dining business. Prepare a reasonable budget and list all the items you require to begin your business and then everything else will fall into place.

Keeping Up With Trends in Fashion Boutiques

No matter how big or small you may be, or how young or old you are, all women want to look their best. However, shopping in fashion boutiques to keep up with the latest trends can be rather daunting. Here are a few tips that will help keep you up to date and looking great at all times.

You will first want to do some looking around in some of the busier areas of your city. There you will find women who are wearing the latest styles, and you will be able to make some decisions as to what you like and what you don’t like. Check out some local fashion boutiques to see what is being stocked so that you can get a good idea regarding what is in. The buyers for these stores are paid to keep an eye out for what designers are introducing for the latest season. However, you have to make sure you realize that just because something is trendy, that doesn’t mean it will be right for you.

One way of helping to determine what the best trends may be for you is through a combination of what you find in fashion boutiques and by what other women are wearing around town. You could, for example, pair a nice-looking top that you see someone sporting with jeans that you see in one of your local stores.

Some trends are a little bit much for many work environments, but you can still be up-to-date without going over the top. Accessories are a great way to have a stylish look without causing a stir in the office. Combine a scarf with some jewelry and you can still turn heads and be safe with the boss.

You should also, of course, consult magazines to get a good idea of the latest trends. You’ll find excellent tips and advice, and you’ll always be ahead of the curve because journalists and editors know about trends months in advance. There’s also nothing wrong with copying women who are of the same size and age as you if they are wearing outfits that you find particularly attractive. There are some women who just seem to know exactly what to wear at all times. If you’re not one of them, there’s nothing wrong with incorporating their ideas every once in a while.

When you are ready to head to your local fashion boutiques to update your look, make sure that you have room by clearing out some of your old outfits. Area charities are always looking for clothing, and you could make a very important difference in someone else’s life. Look online for charities near your home and it will be easy to donate.

Leading Software Maniacs announces availability of innovative project management workshops

FULL-DAY WORKSHOP:

A full-day, duo-instructor workshop called Deliver Projects on Time™ With eXtreme Project Management® is now available to be scheduled for public or private classes. Not your typical re-explanation of thePMBOK® Guide or yet another “How to Be Agile” class, we’ve combined two popular full-day workshops, “Deliver Projects On Time, Every Time!” with Doug DeCarlo Group’s “eXtreme Project Management” into an accelerated, one-day workshop.

This is the only workshop that giveas you proven Agile tools to accelerate planning and on-time delivery for any project. One day, 8 PDUs, two instructors, and a “lively” way to learn! PMI member registration fees start at $299 (early bird). For more information, point your browser to http://www.DeliverExtremeProjects.com.

HALF-DAY WORKSHOP:

For folks that can’t spare a full-day workshop we’ve created a new half-day Project Managers Agile Boot Camp. The instructional material has been condensed to give you what you need to understand project agility in just under four hours. You’ll learn how to distinguish the characteristics between the PMBOK® Guide, traditional waterfall, and Agile (Scrum) approaches to project management. The workshop is facilitated by Ken Whitaker, an experienced project manager, software executive, instructor, and author.

The workshop is highly interactive, lively, and impactful. Attendee registration fees for the 3.5-hour of instruction is competitive priced starting at $159.

OTHER SERVICES:

In addition to workshops, Leading Software Maniacs provides consulting services as well as keynotes, eLearning classes, and no cost project management fun-filled videos. Please visit us at Leading Software Maniacs is a PMI Registered Education Provider.

Leading Software Maniacs, Deliver Projects On Time, Decision Pyramid, the Leading Software Maniacs logo, PM University, and PM Chalkboard are marks of Leading Software Maniacs, LLC. eXtreme Project Management brand project management and Project Acceleration Event are marks of The Doug DeCarlo Group, Inc. For PM Chalkboard and PM University: No claim is made to the exclusive right to use “PM” apart from the mark as shown. PMI, PMP, PMBOK, the PMI logo, and the PMI Registered Education Provider logo are marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. All other marks not mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

Why Divorce Is So Unfair for Children

Whatever the reason for a couple to divorce, the effects on children can be harmful.

Children love their parents equally and whatever the reasons for a husband and wife to want to end their marriage and go their separate ways, it can not be forgotten how this will impact and affect the children.

Children are hardly ever to blame for a marriage failing. And often they are the innocent victims who lives are completely changed because their parents have decided to split up.

If a marriage is ending because a one of the couple has been unfaithful, the children had no part in this and yet are expected to take sides and willingly accept that their parents will no longer be living together and that the family unit has broken up. Add to this the unimaginable thought of the children having to live with one parent and seeing the other parent on alternate weekends, and you can see how this would badly affect most children especially those who are very small and don’t understand what is going on around them.

Many parents fail to appreciate and understand that their children continue to be affected by this family breakup for many years to come.

Whilst the husband and wife have adapted to being separate, and possibly might have met other partners as time goes on, children still cling on to the hope that their parents might one day get back together again.

They don’t want to see a stranger in their father’s place or another woman with their father. These things can be disruptive especially for young minds and can cause resentment and loathing in children towards the parent who has wronged as well as to the new partners of both parents.

Studies also show that the effects of divorce on young children tend to lead to lower marks at school, mood swings and disruption in the lives of those children whose parents had divorced.

Your Guide to Fitness

Fitness is something our culture knows about, but doesn’t activity participate in. Our lifestyles contain too much fast food and not enough exercise. Fitness is essential for your well being and overall health. It can make you age slower and live longer. Fitness keeps the blood pumping in your body and your heart healthy. Those who participate in fitness activities for at least 30 minutes each day significantly reduce their risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Continue reading

How To Acquire Significant Market Share.

Breaking into the market isn’t the simplest of choices for any business. A business must analyse several factors, and every aspect is essential in determining the plan to be undertaken for acquiring market share. Choices such as when, where, and at what level of cost, all play a definitive role in the possible success or failure of any business.

The key to this understanding is that when making a move for market share, strive to be in the limelight – so everyone, potential customers and competitors alike, can’t avoid your presence even if they tried. You should be aggressive in your approach, which can easily be measured by the time, money and effort put into your advertising, sales promotion, publicity and public relations, introductory offers and discounts, etc. The businesses which are able to differentiate themselves from their competitors are the real champions of their industry, and they are, without doubt, the market leaders. They get focused customer attention and unique privileges over all others in their market.

The following activities can be initiated by a business to make their presence felt in the market:

– Differentiated Products and Services – The products or services offered by a business should be differentiated from those offered by others. It might be in the area of technology, design, packaging, the look or just about anything else, but the product or service should have a special and unique image in the thoughts of the customers.

– Customer Focused Advertising – Advertising is an important and effective means of reaching out to your potential customers. Television, radio, internet, mobile phones and print media are the common advertising tools used in today’s world. This advertising should be customer and market targeted. The intensity of this advertising and how many people it will reach usually depends entirely upon the budget allocated.

– Customer Relationship – Customers are the most important aspect of any business, and the aim of all businesses is to reach out to these customers in the most effective manner – as efficiently as possible. The fundamental point of marketing is to create long term relationships with as many customers as possible, and with improved presale and after sales service, a business can deliver quality assistance to the pursuits of every customer, thereby guaranteeing long term relationships and regular custom.

– Introductory Offers and Schemes – It’s very important at the time of entering a market that a business should use introductory offers, rebates, discounts and schemes to stimulate customers toward purchasing products and services.

– Extensive Warranties and Guarantees – Almost every customer will prefer a product that carries some kind of warranty or guarantee. If a new product has some form of extensive warranty or guarantee, most customers will consider that the company is being responsible for their product, and therefore, it’s seen as an “intelligent buy”.

Copyright (c) 2009 Alan Gillies

Play Piano the Easiest Way-Start With Chords

The Easiest Way to Play the Piano is to know your Chords and how to play then on the piano keyboard.

Most people want to play piano simply to play their favorite song or impress their loved ones and have fun. If you are the one, then rejoice because you are going to play piano right from now even if you never touched a keyboard before.

To play the piano the easiest way, is to start with the basics. You dont need anything complicated just go head on to the piano chords and start building your chords house. With just the piano chords in your fingers, you can play any single song on the piano.

Most guitar players out there have very little formal training; they are good in picking things up by ear and play songs by chords, this tactics works well with piano players, and you can do it.

The next thing to do is to start adding salt and spices to it every day to get a nice sound. Learn how to embellish the cords. Enrich your style with some accompaniment to draw any one attention to your sound. Think about learning some fancy patterns to your sound. Armed with only these you would be up and running in just some few days.
Further more, you will like to know that there are different categories of Chords on a piano.

If you are ready to start learning chords, these are the main ones to start with, the major chords, the minor chords, the diminished chords, the augmented chords, the suspension chords, just a few of them. In fact, there are as many as 8000 chords playable on a normal 88 key piano. Some of the chords are either too high or too low to be added in playing a song.

This is how to play the a chord on piano;
As there are many different types of chords you can play on the piano, the most popular among all the pianists would be the C chord. To play the C chord, put your right thumb on the middle C key, place your middle finger on the E key, and your pinky the G key. If you press all three fingers down at the same time, you’ve just played a C chord successfully!

That is not all, note that pianists never get tired learning new chords, so your investment of time to get a better grip on the basic chords on a piano keyboard is worth its price in gold, and you will be excited for the result you get.

Best Regards

Online Boutiques Trendy, Affordable Women & Junior Clothing & Jewelry

Online clothing boutiques are becoming more and more of a popular way to seek out the most fashionable one of a kind piece that you wouldn’t find at any department store, physical boutique, or even the popular big name online stores. The fascination with these great online clothing boutiques is there ability to get you the latest in fashion at an affordable price because they are online. Since many of these stores do not have major overhead expenses, they are able to get more of a variety of clothes and personalize there service to cater to there customers. Because there customer service is much more personal as it caters to the individual rather then the customer number,’ the shopper is given the feeling of importance as well as the feeling of having a personal shopping home.
Nowadays, for a major online department store to provide the services and products that online boutiques offer is quite a challenge to find. Due to online clothing boutiques being able to specialized in customer care as well as in quality of there products, major online department stores have a harder time doing the same due to the ability to try to work with every customer as quickly as they can. A customer can call a clothing boutique and ask about size, color, availability and shipping without feeling the rush to get off the phone for the agent to help as many customers as possible.
Fashion always comes at a price, but with online clothing boutiques, it doesn’t have to cost the customer. In fact, with a variety of customer discounts and special offers, it is a woman’s dream to shop online at her convenience rather then pay more for a similar item somewhere else because of there overhead. Even high end online boutiques seem to be much more affordable then shopping at high end fashion department stores.
Many women are finding more ways to get more for there money and these online boutiques are thriving at every opportunity to serve each and every customer that shop with them till they are fully satisfied.
One of the many fashion clothing boutiques that make great efforts in its customer service as well as in providing affordable prices is Pink Cherie. They live by there motto of Catering to the women that wants to look fabulous at every stage of her life.’ With there high demand on clothes and variety of jewelry pieces, women flock to them because of them treating each shopper as an individual as well as providing very fashion forward pieces.